FreqMult (Ideal Frequency Multiplier)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Name |
Description |
Units |
Default |
---|---|---|---|
S11 |
Complex reflection coefficient for port 1 |
None |
0 |
S22 |
Complex reflection coefficient for port 2 |
None |
0 |
G1 |
Power gain of input tone |
dB |
3 |
G2 |
Power gain of second harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
G3 |
Power gain of third harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
G4 |
Power gain of fourth harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
G5 |
Power gain of fifth harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
G6 |
Power gain of sixth harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
G7 |
Power gain of seventh harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
G8 |
Power gain of eighth harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
G9 |
Power gain of ninth harmonic relative to input tone |
dB |
None |
Pmin |
Minimum input power for specified conversion |
dBm |
−40 |
Z1 |
Reference impedance for port 1 |
Ohm |
50 |
Z2 |
Reference impedance for port 2 |
Ohm |
50 |
Range of Usage
0 ≤ S11< 1
0 ≤ S22< 1
Notes/Equations
- The ideal frequency multiplier takes an input signal and produces an output spectrum with specified spectral harmonics. The reverse isolation is assumed to be infinite (S12=0). All of the harmonics generation is specified relative to the input level. For example if an input power of 20 dBm is incident on a multiplier with G2=−20 dB the second harmonic output will be 0 dBm. This device is compatible with transient simulation.
- This model assumes that only one signal tone is present at the input. If multiple tones are used at the input then unwanted mixing products can be generated and spurious mixing products will result.
- The harmonic balance parameter ORDER must be set to a value equal to or higher than the harmonic index of interest.
- Real-world nonlinear devices such as mixers and frequency multipliers often have an input power level below which they do not work. For FreqMult, this phenomenon is incorporated through the PMin parameter. However, PMin is not simply a minimum threshold value to which the input power is limited.
With a right-propagating input wave of a1, the input power detection is done via |a1|^{2}=a1 × a1+H(a1) × H(a1), with H(a1) being the Hilbert transform of a1. A normalized a1 is then calculated via a1norm=a1/sqrt(|a1|^{2}+dBm2lin(PMin)), with dBm2lin(x)=10^{(x-30)/10}. Note the presence of PMin. For dBm2lin(PMin)<<|a1|^{2}, the effect of PMin is negligible. For |a1|^{2} approaching dBm2lin(PMin), however, the results will depend on the value of PMin. If this is undesired, simply lower PMin appropriately. - Z1 and Z2, the reference impedance parameters for ports 1 and 2, are used in conjunction with the parameters S11/S21/S12/S22. This is because S-data is always used with respect to a particular reference impedance.