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AmplifierP2D (P2D File Amplifier, FDD-Based, for Single Carrier Signal)

Symbol

Available in ADS
Parameters

Name

Description

Units

Default

Freq

Fundamental frequency

GHz

1.0

P2DFile

Filename for P2D data

None

p2dfile.p2d

FilteringOption †

CE simulation option of pre / post filtering envelope frequencies relative to nonlinearity; enumerated options are: NoFilter, PreFilter, PostFilter

None

NoFilter

CEFreqSpacing †

Sampling frequency used for envelope simulation

MHz

1.0

iVarN ††

Name of Nth multi-dimensional variables N=(1,...,N). Use if present in P2D file

None

None

iValN ††

Value of Nth multi-dimensional variables N=(1,...,N). Use real or integer values only

None

None

ImpNoncausalLength

Non-causal function impulse response order

Integer

None

ImpMode

Convolution mode

Integer

None

ImpMaxFreq

Maximum frequency to which device is evaluated

 

 

ImpMaxOrder

Maximum allowed impulse response order

Integer

None

ImpWindow

Smoothing window

Integer

None

ImpRelTol

Relative impulse response truncation factor

None

None

ImpAbsTol

Absolute impulse response truncation factor

None

None

† The FilteringOption and CEFreqSpacing parameters are provided (beginning with 2003C) to enhance circuit envelope simulation capabilities; refer to note 8 and note 10 for details. The default values suppress effects of FilteringOption and CEFreqSpacing parameters to ensure backwards compatibility. CEFreqSpacing is the equivalent of ImpDeltaFreq in

† † AmplifierS2D with the restriction that it must always have an assigned value in AmplifierP2D. If multi-dimensional VAR statements are present in the P2DFile, then these variables are required to be listed in iVarN as indicated in note 12 and corresponding values assigned to them using the iValN parameter.

Notes/Equations
  1. AmplifierP2D is a data-based system model of a circuit-level amplifier. The circuit-level amplifier is characterized by a P2D file generated either by the extractor component AmplifierP2D_Setup in a simulation environment or by a measurement instrument such as a network analyzer. Various examples of the use of the AmplifierP2D data model are provided in the example project AmpP2D_prj.
  2. A P2D file, named *.p2d, contains small- and large-signal 2-port S-parameter data with optional noise parameters and intermodulation table data. The AmplifierP2D model only uses data related to amplifier modeling; it ignores frequency translation and intermodulation table data that may be contained in a generic P2D file. The referenced P2D file should reside in the data subdirectory of the current project. For details on P2D file format, refer to P2D Format.
  3. The AmplifierP2D model blocks DC. For CE simulations, baseband signals are blocked.
  4. For small-signal simulations such as AC and S-parameter analyses, AmplifierP2D only uses the small-signal S-parameters of the P2D file. For S-parameter analysis, the nominal frequency must be set as Freq=freq, where freq is the ambient simulation frequency. If the Freq parameter value falls outside the range of frequencies in the small-signal section of the P2D file, an error message is reported in the simulator log window and the is simulation terminated. Linear interpolation of S-parameters is performed within the small-signal range to emulate behavior at a frequency not explicitly registered in the data file. Linear extrapolation is enabled but not recommended outside the small-signal frequency range because modeling accuracy cannot be guaranteed outside the data points of the P2D file.
  5. For large-signal frequency analysis such as those based on Harmonic Balance, the power-dependent S-parameters from the ACDATA block are used in conjunction with small-signal parameters. For these simulations, Freq must be set to the fundamental frequency explicitly or through the pre-defined variable _freq1. Setting Freq=freq causes errors. For an N-tone Harmonic Balance simulation any of N frequencies specified on the controller may be chosen as nominal frequency for the AmplifierP2D component by setting Freq=_freqX, where X is in the integer range [1, N].
  6. If the Freq parameter value falls outside the range of frequencies in the large-signal section of the P2D file, a warning message is reported in the simulator log window although the simulation is allowed to proceed. Linear interpolation along the frequency axis is permitted within the small- and large-signal range but extrapolation is not advised on either side of the large-signal limits because of insufficient data. It is important to scan the simulator log window at the end of any large-signal simulation involving the AmplifierP2D component to ensure that frequency limits were not exceeded.
  7. If the power incident at the input of the amplifier model during large-signal frequency domain analyses, such as Harmonic Balance, LSSP or Circuit Envelope simulations, exceeds the maximum value of P1 in the P2D file a warning message is sent the simulator log window concerning unsupported modeling at high drive levels.
  8. The FilteringOption parameter allows the user to regulate modeling of distortion effects at the fundamental frequency due to other frequencies within the envelope bandwidth during a circuit envelope simulation. Some harmonics and intermods produced by the non-fundamental tones within the CE-band contribute to the distortion of the fundamental tone at the output of the amplifier for high drive levels at the input. In the design of complex circuit level amplifiers this distortion is either regulated at the amplifier input or output using a narrowband filter. In order to imitate this feature during behavioral simulation AmplifierP2D enables the user to set the FilteringOption parameter to PreFilter or PostFilter so that appropriate filtering effects can be modeled without changing the P2D data file. It is useful to perform such CE-band distortion evaluation for certain applications (communications systems, for example). The NoFilter default setting suppresses estimation of envelope bandwidth distortion at the nominal frequency Freq; this setting is sufficient for all non-CE simulations.
  9. The PreFilter or PostFilter option is for use during circuit envelope simulations only. Prefiltering of non-fundamental frequencies reduces the potential of distortion close to power saturation of the fundamental frequency at the output; postfiltering allows maximal non-linear distortion to occur at amplifier output. Maximally flat filtering is assumed across the entire envelope bandwidth. This distortion modeling feature is highlighted in the example design BEH_P2D_CE_filter.dsn.
  10. The CEFreqSpacing parameter is used to select the granularity of envelope band frequencies that are allowed to impact the distortion of the fundamental frequency at amplifier output. There is an inherent performance trade-off in using this parameter: the smaller its value the more accurate the simulation but the longer the duration of the CE simulation. If filtering is enabled and CEFreqSpacing exceeds half the value of Freq a warning message is reported to the simulation log window and simulation proceeds without the use of filtering due to violation of the Nyquist sampling requirement for CEFreqSpacing. The recommended value for CEFreqSpacing is 10-3 (value assigned to Freq). This feature is highlighted in the example design BEH_P2D_CE_sample.dsn.
  11. AmplifierP2D is implemented using the FDD model. Unlike the SML models Amplifier and Amplifier2 or the VME model AmplifierS2D, AmplifierP2D does not produce harmonics or intermods in a Harmonic Balance simulation.
    In a Harmonic Balance analysis, the only frequency component that can pass through AmplifierP2D is that specified by Freq. Signals at all other frequencies will see a ground at the input of AmplifierP2D. However, in a Circuit Envelope simulation, the envelope signal around the carrier frequency Freq will pass through AmplifierP2D and cause distortion at the fundamental Freq, whereas all signals outside the envelope band are ignored.
    To simulate multi-tone behavior involving harmonic modeling, consider using the AmpH1H2 or AmplifierS2D models.
  12. The response of AmplifierP2D can be user-selected from a body of multi-dimensional P2D data by specifying the names and ambient values of such variables in the iVarN and iValN entries prior to behavioral simulation. Details of multi-dimensional P2D file generation are discussed in the notes for AmplifierP2D_Setup component and the format of these files is described in Working with Data Files. If a given multi-dimensional P2D file contains "V" VAR variables then the names of all these variables need to be assigned using the iVar1 through iVarV parameters of the AmplifierP2D instance. Although the ordering of these names can be arbitrary relative to those in the P2D file, the existence and ordering of values in the iVal1 through iValV parameters should always correspond to that of iVar1 through iVarV. If a multi-dimensional VAR contained in the P2D data file is not specified on the iVarN of an AmplifierP2D instance reading that file, the simulation will be terminated on due to insufficient data for multi-dimensional data indexing. Currently, only real and integer values of multidimensional iVarN are supported.
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