10GHz Waveguide Horn Antenna


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10GHz Waveguide Horn Antenna


Contents


Introduction

Abstract:A microwave horn antenna at 10GHz was designed and simulated with finite difference time domain (FDTD) EM simulation technology.Horn antennas are popular and widely used in microwave and laboratory applications since they are easy to build and allow easy excitation. They also provide high gain, low VSWR, and relatively wide bandwidth. In this example, a pyramidal horn antenna application example is discussed.

Figure 1 shows the complete view of pyramidal horn antenna with a coax to waveguide transition design.


Figure 1: Horn Antenna with Coax Transition

Figure 2 shows a more detailed front view of the antenna that contains a reactive coax pin with a back short in the coax to waveguide transition area.


Figure 2: The front view of pyramidal horn antenna with coax transition

Design Challenges

Accurate simulations of critical antenna design parameters such as gain, radiation patterns, and impedance of the antenna are important. Either FDTD or FEM simulation technology can be applied for simulating horn antennas. MoM is not applicable since typical horn antennas are full 3D geometries in nature. Although FDTD and FEM technologies are both applicable, FDTD typically uses less computer resources than FEM because it solves the problem progressively at each time step, instead of building and solving a large matrix in FEM. FDTD also allows users to display field propagation versus time as shown in the above animation.

Results

Figure 3 shows the S11 performance of the antenna.


Figure 3: S11 Result of Horn Antenna

Figure 4 shows the gain pattern of the antenna.


Figure 4: Gain Pattern of Horn Antenna

Conclusion

In this example, it is demonstrated how FDTD EM simulation technology can effectively simulate waveguide horn antennas. The problem size of this design in FDTD was only 700 MB. With GPU acceleration, it took less than 18 minutes to simulate.

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