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Documentation:   ADS 2009 Update 1   >  X-Parameter Generator   >  X-Parameter Generator Basics

This document contains references to Agilent Technologies. Agilent's former Test and Measurement business has become Keysight Technologies. For more information, go to www.keysight.com.


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X-Parameter Generator Basics

This is a description of X-Parameter Generator, including when to use it, how to set it up, the data it generates, and troubleshooting.

Overview

Using the X-Parameter Generator from the Simulation-X_Param palette enables you to obtain the X-parameters of a component, circuit, or subnetwork. The extracted X-parameter data can be used as a behavioral model in simulation by using the XnP component. For more information, refer to XnP Components (X1P - X10P).

Refer to following topics for details on X-Parameter Generator:

Using X-Parameter Generator

This section describes how to set up X-Parameter Generator.

License Requirements

The X-Parameter Generator uses the W2305 X-Parameter Generator license. You must have this license to run the X-Parameter Generator. You can work with examples described here and installed with the software without the license, but you will not be able to simulate them.

How to Use X-Parameter Generator

For a successful analysis:

  • Apply XP_Bias to DC ports, XP_Source to large signal input ports, and XP_Load to outputs. Those components are collectively called XP term components and can be found in the Simulation-X_Param palette.
  • Check the Num field for each XP term component. The X-parameter port numbers are derived from these fields.
  • Power sweep at a port has to be specified on the Power source tab of the XP_Source component connected to the port. Do not use ParamSweep to sweep source power.
  • Load sweep at a port has to be specified on the Load tab of the XP_Load component connected to the port. Do not use ParamSweep to sweep load.
  • DC bias sweep at a port has to be specified on the DC tab of the XP_Bias component connected to the port. Do not use ParamSweep to sweep DC bias.
  • Add the X-Parameters controller to the schematic and double-click to edit it. For a basic simulation, fill in the fields under the Freq tab:
    • Enter at least one fundamental frequency and the number (order) of harmonics to be considered in the simulation.
      Make sure that frequency definitions are established for all of the fundamentals of interest in a design. For example, mixers should include definitions for RF and LO frequencies.
    • If more than one fundamental is entered, set the maximum mixing order. This limits the number of mixing products to be considered in the simulation. For more information on this parameter, refer to Harmonics and Maximum Mixing Order.
  • If you want to sweep a fundamental, add VarEqn and SweepPlan for the fundamental, then specify the sweep under X-Parameters controller Sweep tab. Do not use ParamSweep to sweep fundamentals.
  • The setup for parameters Initial Guess tab, Oversample tab and Solver tab is the same as those in Harmonic Balance Simulation.
  • X-parameter data is written to a dataset file. To output X-parameter data to GMDIF file, check the "Output GMDIF file" checkbox. GMDIF files are ASCII files and are suitable for cross-platform exchanges. Dataset files facilitate Data Display plotting.

Limitations

  • X-Parameter Generator runs a series of Harmonic Balance simulations. So, all limitations to Harmonic Balance also apply to X-Parameter Generator. For Harmonic Balance limitation, see Harmonics balance limitations.
  • Sweeps of the fundamental frequencies have to be defined in the X-Parameters controller under the Sweep tab. Do not use ParamSweep to sweep fundamental frequencies.
  • Sweeps of other user defined variables like temperature have to be defined in the X-Parameters controller under the Sweep tab. Do not use ParamSweep.

    Note

    Simulation of XnP Components (X1P - X10P) does not support user defined variables.

Troubleshooting a Simulation

For information on troubleshooting, refer to Troubleshooting a simulation in Harmonic Balance.

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